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The wider environment

Healthy, diverse ecosystems form the fabric of life – supporting plants and animals, farmers and the local economy, and our business. By minimising our impacts on the wider environment, we respect the natural world for its own sake, for the sake of our neighbours, and for our business.

Our approach

Our distilleries, breweries, wineries, and other sites are all surrounded by complex ecosystems which support a wide range of plant and animal species and are vital to the livelihoods of local people. Our potential impacts on the wider environment and the ecosystem services it provides are increasingly important to us, in particular those caused by the use of our main ingredient, water.

Alcohol production is also associated with a range of air emissions which can deplete ozone or contribute to acid rain, although these impacts are relatively small for our business. Spills and other incidents can introduce substances – usually alcohol – into the environment. We are measuring and reporting these impacts, mitigating the risks, and reducing them wherever possible.

In this section we report on our work in relation to the wider environment, including:

Addressing our impacts on biodiversity

We recognise that a business which uses natural ingredients is a stakeholder in the shared resource of biodiversity, with a responsibility to preserve and support it; we also depend on it for the sustainability of our business.

Many of the programmes described in other sections of this report create environmental improvements that support biodiversity. Water use, water abstraction, and air emissions all generate impacts on biodiversity. As well as our own initiatives, we have set out what we expect from our suppliers in our Partnering with Suppliers standards.

Water and biodiversity

The use of water in areas that are water-stressed1 has particular consequences for biodiversity. Our overall water strategy focuses on increasing the efficiency of water use and reducing pollution globally, with a specific emphasis on reducing water wasted in water-stressed areas.

We have identified 10 water sources used by our operations as being sensitive. Three of our production sites are associated with wetlands designated under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance:

  • Kumasi Kaase, Ghana, in relation to the Owabi Nature Reserve
  • Kampala International Distillers Uganda, in relation to Lutembe Bay
  • Kampala Uganda Breweries Limited, Uganda, in relation to Mabamba Bay.

In each protected wetland we are monitoring the local issues specific to our sites, and implementing innovative technologies which improve water efficiency and the quality of wastewater. We are also exploring the potential for collaboration with other industries and stakeholders to encourage the spread of more effective management practices. For example, at our Kumasi facility in Ghana we reduced the absolute volume of water abstracted by 22% this year, and upgraded our effluent treatment plant to ensure any wastewater discharged meets, or is of better quality than, local national standards.

The water that leaves our operations has potential impacts on rivers, lakes, streams and the ocean, and we seek to mitigate impacts through effluent monitoring and treatment. For information on how we manage effluent, see our section on reducing water pollution.

  1. Diageo defines water-stressed sites as those locations that pose a higher risk for water insecurity now and/or into the future; the definition is based on an evaluation of physical or economic water scarcity as well as regulatory and social risk.

Protected areas and threatened species

We have identified 35 operational sites and/or vacant owned land to be near or adjacent to areas designated as having biodiversity value by the United Nations or national conservation lists. These have a total area of approximately 29km2.

Several of our sites are also in or close to the habitats of species that are designated as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). For example our Captain Morgan distillery is in St Croix, the US Virgin Islands, where the St Croix ground lizard is listed as critically endangered by the IUCN. Our winery in Paicines, California, is adjacent to the Pinnacles National Monument, a release site for the California condor, which is on the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species. In all cases, we are managing these sites in accordance with our licence conditions and the requirements of local stakeholders.

A full list of sites close to protected areas, and threatened species (to the best of our knowledge) is included below.

Sites or land owned adjacent to areas of biodiversity value

Site Type of
operation
Biodiversity value
of adjacent land
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species or local designations
Acacia Vineyard, United States Winery Huichica Creek Watershed: US Fish & Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service
  • California freshwater shrimp (syncaris pacifica): endangered
  • Steelhead (callitris monticola): vulnerable
Auchroisk Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Beaulieu Vineyard, United States Winery / packaging Bale Slough – Napa River Watershed; National Marine Fisheries Service – Critical Habitat
  • Steelhead (callitris monticola): vulnerable
Benrinnes Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus): least concern
Blackgrange, Scotland Warehousing Firth of Forth: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI
  • Red‑throated diver (gavia stellate): least concern
  • Slavonian grebe (podiceps auritus): least concern
  • Golden plover (pluvialis apricaria): least concern
  • Bar‑tailed godwit (limosa lapponica): least concern
Blair Athol Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Tummel – part of the River Tay: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI; SAC
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Brook lamprey (lampetra planeri): least concern
  • River lamprey (lampetra fluviatilis): least concern
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
Blythswood, Scotland Warehousing Black Cart – tributary of River Clyde: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI
  • Whooper swan (cygnus cygnus): least concern
Bonhill, Scotland Warehousing Inner Clyde Estuary: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI
  • Common redshank (tringa totanus): least concern
Broxburn, Scotland Distillery Firth of Forth: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI
  • Red‑throated diver (gavia stellate): least concern
  • Slavonian grebe (podiceps auritus): least concern
  • Golden plover (pluvialis apricaria): least concern
  • Bar‑tailed godwit (limosa lapponica): least concern
Burghead Maltings, Scotland Maltings Moray Firth: Maritime ecosystem (Sea) Natura 2000 site; SSSI
  • Bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncates): least concern
Cambus, Scotland Warehousing Firth of Forth: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI
  • Red‑throated diver (gavia stellate): least concern
  • Slavonian grebe (podiceps auritus): least concern
  • Golden plover (pluvialis apricaria): least concern
  • Bar‑tailed godwit (limosa lapponica): least concern
Cardhu, Scotland Distillery River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Carsebridge, Scotland Warehousing Firth of Forth: Freshwater Natura 2000 site: SSSI
  • Red‑throated diver (gavia stellate): least concern
  • Slavonian grebe (podiceps auritus): least concern
  • Golden plover (pluvialis apricaria): least concern
  • Bar‑tailed godwit (limosa lapponica): least concern
Chalone Vineyard, United States Winery / Packaging Pinnacles National Park: Terrestrial (Land), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
  • California condor (gymnogyps californianus): critically endangered
Cragganmore Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Dailuaine Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Dalwhinnie Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Truim – tributary of the River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Dufftown Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Dullan – tributary of the River Fiddich / River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Glen Ord Distillery, Scotland Distillery Beauly Firth (Inner Moray Firth): Maritime ecosystem (Sea) Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • European rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus): near threatened
Glen Spey Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Glendullan Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Fiddich – tributary of the River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Gleneagles Hotel, Scotland Hotel Raised dome sphagnum peat mire – SSSI which is managed in conjunction with Scottish Natural Heritage
  • Eurasian wigeon (anas penelope): least concern
  • Greylag goose (anser anser): least concern
  • Pink-footed goose (anser brachyrhynchus): least concern
Hewitt Provenance, United States Winery Bale Slough – tributary of the Napa River, National Marine Fisheries – Critical Habitat
  • Steelhead (callitris monticola): vulnerable
Icheon, South Korea Blending / packaging Nam Han River: Freshwater, Ramsar Convention, national legislation 'Ecosystem and Landscape Region for Conservation'
  • Korean striped bitterling (acheilognathus yamatsutae): not yet assessed
  • Korean spined bitterling (acanthorhodeus gracilis): not yet assessed
  • Korean oily shiner (sarcocheilichthys nigripinnus morii): not yet assessed
Kilkenny, Ireland Brewery River Nore: SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
Knockando Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Menstrie, Scotland Warehousing Firth of Forth: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI
  • Red‑throated diver (gavia stellate): least concern
  • Slavonian grebe (podiceps auritus): least concern
  • Golden plover (pluvialis apricaria): least concern
  • Bar‑tailed godwit (limosa lapponica): least concern
Mortlach Distillery, Scotland Distillery River Dullan – tributary of the River Fiddich/River Spey: Freshwater Natura 2000 site; SSSI and SAC
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern
  • Eurasian otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • Sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus): least concern
Mwanza, Tanzania Brewery Adjacent to the wetland at the shores of Lake Victoria
  • None
Red Stripe, Jamaica Brewery Approximately 3.2km from Kingston Harbour – National Environment Protection Agency Water Resource Authority
  • White-winged dove (zenaida asiatica): least concern
  • Brown pelican (pelecanus occidentalis): least concern
  • Magnificent frigatebird (fregata magnificens): least concern
  • Yellow warbler (dendroica petechia): least concern
Shieldhall, Scotland Distillery Inner Clyde Estuary: Ramsar Convention, national legislation
  • Common redshank (tringa totanus): least concern
St Croix, US Virgin Islands Distillery The St Croix ground lizard, mainly found in beach areas and upland forest, is indigenous to the island of St Croix and three other islands
  • St Croix ground lizard (ameiva polops): critically endangered
Sterling Vineyards, United States Winery Napa River Watershed: National Marine Fisheries Service
  • Steelhead (callitris monticola): vulnerable
Uganda Brewery, Uganda Brewery Adjacent to Murchison Bay at the shores of Lake Victoria
  • Madagascar pond heron (ardeola idae) endangered;
  • Shoebill (balaeniceps rex): vulnerable
  • Gonolek (laniarius mufumbiri): near threatened
  • Papyrus yellow warbler (chloropeta gracilirostris): vulnerable
Waterford BBA, Ireland Brewery Lower River Suir: Freshwater Natura 2000 site
  • Freshwater pearl mussel (margaritifera margaritifera): endangered
  • Eurasian Otter (lutra lutra): near threatened
  • White-clawed crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes): endangered
  • Atlantic salmon (salmo salar): least concern

Notes

SSSI: Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom.

Natura 2000: this is a network of protected areas in the European Union as designated under (1) Habitats Directive (i.e. Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora), and (2) the Birds Directive (i.e. Council Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds).

SAC: a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) is defined in the European Union’s Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).

IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Reducing ozone-depleting and other air emissions

We have made significant progress in eliminating ozone-depleting substances from our operations. However, some substances, including hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), are inherent components of equipment, and small quantities are emitted through its use and maintenance.

This year we are reporting a greater amount of ozone-depleting substances and fluorinated gases than in 2012, due to the inclusion of data from newly-acquired businesses along with more rigorous data collection. This year, 12,909.5kg of HCFCs were present in our refrigeration and air‑conditioning systems, of which 693.5kg were emitted. Halons have been almost eliminated from all our manufacturing sites, while CFCs are present in extremely small quantities.

Ozone-depleting substances and fluorinated gases (2013)
Present kg Emitted kg
Halons 0.5 0.0
CFC 63.1 0.0
HCFC 12,909.5 693.5
HFC 7,143.5 522.3
SF6 7.5 0.0

Other air emissions

The use of fuel and the distillation of alcohol generate emissions which have impacts on the environment. In 2013, we emitted 1.252kt of nitrous oxides (NOx) and 1.405kt of sulphur dioxides (SOx).

NOx and SOx are calculated based on fuel usage and standard emission factors. A small number of sites have NOx and SOx air emissions associated with the roasting and kilning of cereals, used to flavour some of our brands. These emissions are measured but are minimal to our overall total NOx/SOx levels, which remain low compared with background NOx and SOx data.

NOx and SOx emissions by year (kt)
2011 2012 2013
NOx 1.538 1.315 1.252
SOx 1.385 1.368 1.405

Accounting for incidents

There were nine incidents of non‑compliance with environmental consents this year, resulting in a total of £68,119 in fines. There were 15 spills or incidents during the reporting year, totalling approximately 76,300 litres of spilled material. In all cases regulators were informed and were satisfied with our response and follow up.

Genetically-modified organisms (GMOs)

Our policy is always to adhere to regulatory requirements for ingredients. In general we use materials from non‑genetically modified sources as ingredients in our products. If GMO ingredients are present in our products we strictly adhere to local labelling requirements. We are committed to ensuring our consumers have the best possible access to information with which to make informed choices.

Reporting frameworks in this section

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